Saturday, 4 July 2015

Microorganisms

Micro Organisms

       

Microorganisms are very smallest living thing.
They are present any where, Universal presents.
They are three types depends upon the cellular.
                  Uni cellular
                  Multi cellular
                  Non-cellular
 They are 
                  Bacteria 
                  Virus
                  Algae
                  Plants
                  Animals
                  Protozoa
                  Archea

 

Bacteria

              The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which is the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον (bakterion), the diminutive of βακτηρία (bakteria), meaning "staff, cane",because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped.
              Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies.
     Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5–5.0 micrometres in
     E. fishelsoni reaches 0.7 mm. Among the smallest bacteria are members of the genus Mycoplasma, which measure only 0.3 micrometres, as small as the largest viruses.
     Some bacteria may be even smaller, but these ultramicrobacteria are not well-studied.

    Most bacterial species are either spherical, called cocci (sing. coccus, from Greek kókkos, grain, seed), or rod-shaped, called bacilli (sing. bacillus, from Latin baculus, stick). Elongation is associated with swimming.     Some bacteria, called vibrio, are shaped like slightly curved rods or comma-shaped; others can be spiral-shaped, called spirilla, or tightly coiled, called spirochaetes. A small number of species even have tetrahedral or cuboidal shapes.
     More recently, bacteria were discovered deep under Earth's crust that grow as branching filamentous types with a star-shaped cross-section.
     The large surface area to volume ratio of this morphology may give these bacteria an advantage in nutrient-poor environments.
     This wide variety of shapes is determined by the bacterial cell wall and cytoskeleton, and is important because it can influence the ability of bacteria to acquire nutrients, attach to surfaces, swim through liquids and escape predators.
length. However, a few species — for example, Thiomargarita namibiensis and Epulopiscium fishelsoni — are up to half a millimetre long and are visible to the unaided eye.